Surface Chemical analysis

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The physical bases of surface analysis techniques square measure represented within the context of semiconductor analysis. specific stress is placed on the SIMS (secondary particle mass spectrometry) technique, as this is often one among a lot of helpful info for routine semiconductor characterization. the sensible application of those ways is self-addressed in preference to describing the frontiers of the current analysis.


The surface analysis may be a term that’s applied to a variety of analytical techniques that square measure wont to verify the weather and molecules gift within the outer layers of solid samples. In most cases, these techniques also can be wont to probe the depth distributions of species below the outer surface. In 1992 the International Standards Organisation (ISO) established a technical committee (TC) on the surface analysis (ISO TC 201) to harmonize ways and procedures in surface analysis. ISO TC 201 encompasses a range of subcommittees that manage totally {different|completely different} surface chemical analytical techniques and this chapter can discuss the applications of those different ways, outlined by ISO TC 201, within the context of semiconductor analyses.

Traditional surface analysis techniques embody the lepton spectroscopic analysis-based ways Auger lepton spectroscopic analysis (AES or just Auger) and x-ray negatron spectroscopy (XPS, once conjointly referred to as ESCA – lepton spectroscopic analysis for chemical analysis), and also the mass chemical analysis methodology SIMS (secondary particle mass spectrometry).

Electron spectroscopic analysis

In the lepton spectroscopies, Auger and XPS, the surface of the sample are probed by AN exciting beam that causes electrons to be ejected from the atoms within the sample. These electrons square measure collected and their energies analyzed. the 2 techniques square measure similar however subtly completely different.

Auger lepton spectroscopic analysis

In Auger, a beam of electrons is employed to excite the sample. throughout the interaction of the first ray with the sample atoms, core electrons square measure knocked out, making vacancies within the inner lepton shells. Electrons from outer shells will make up the vacancy, therefore feat the atom in AN unstable state and, so as to come back to equilibrium, the surplus energy the atom possesses is dissipated in one among 2 ways: either by the emission of AN x-ray gauge boson with characteristic energy (the basis of energy- or wavelength-dispersive x-ray analysis) or by the emission of a 3rd lepton (the Auger electron), with AN energy determined by the distinction in energy between the initial core state and people of the 2 different levels concerned. Clearly, these energies square measure unambiguously determined by the energy levels within the atom and therefore offer a route for analysis. As 3 electrons square measure necessary for the Auger method to occur, AES is incapable of detection element or chemical element, however, all different components turn out characteristic Auger electrons.

X-Ray negatron spectroscopic analysis (XPS)

XPS is extremely the same as Auger in terms of the instrumentation and physics concerned. the first excitation, because the name implies, is, during this case, a beam of x-rays. The x-rays, usually Mg or metallic elements, eject core electrons from the surface atoms by the negatron impact. The K.E. of the emitted photoelectrons are up to the distinction between the x-ray gauge boson energy and also the core level separation energy, and therefore are but but but Mg and metallic element severally. So, like Auger, the mean free methods of the photoelectrons square measure of the order of monolayers in solid materials.